Fundamental diagrams describe the relationship between speed, flow, and density for some roadway (or set of roadway) configuration(s). These diagrams typically do not reflect, however, information on how speed-flow relationships change as a function of exogenous variables such as curb configuration, weather or other exogenous, contextual information. In this paper we present a machine learning methodology that respects known engineering constraints and physical laws of roadway flux–those that are captured in fundamental diagrams– and show how this can be used to introduce contextual information into the generation of these diagrams. The modeling task is formulated as a probe vehicle trajectory reconstruction problem with Neural Ordinary Differential Equations (Neural ODEs). With the presented methodology, we extend the fundamental diagram to non-idealized roadway segments with potentially obstructed traffic data. For simulated data, we generalize this relationship by introducing contextual information at the learning stage, i.e. vehicle composition, driver behavior, curb zoning configuration, etc, and show how the speed-flow relationship changes as a function of these exogenous factors independent of roadway design.
Koch, J., Maxner, T., Amatya, V.C., Ranjbari, A., & Dowling, C.P. (2022). Physics-informed Machine Learning of Parameterized Fundamental Diagrams.