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Developing Better Curb Management Strategies through Understanding Commercial Vehicle Driver Parking Behavior in a Simulated Environment

Publication: Harvard Dataverse
Publication Date: 2023

Three different data types were obtained from Oregon State Driving and Bicycling Simulator Laboratory for purpose of this report and they are as follow:

  1. Speed data consists of subject number, average speed, minimum speed, and all the independent variables. Speed data were collected based on the truck’s speed while driving through a certain scenario (out of 24). For each scenario, the average and minimum speed (mph) of 12 drivers were recorded along each segment (scenario) from the start of the road to 150 feet before the intersection (traffic signals).
  2. Eye tracking data consists of subject number, total fixation duration (TFD) in milliseconds, area of interest (AOI), and all the independent variables. TFD data were collected while the truck driver maneuvers through a certain scenario (out of 24). For each scenario, the TFD for each AOI was recorded for 11 subjects along each segment (scenario) from the start of the road to 150 feet before the intersection (traffic signals). AOI represent the area of interest that a driver fixates for a certain of time to generate the total fixation duration.
  3. Eye tracking data consists of subject number, GSR in peaks per minute, and all the independent variables. GSR data were collected while the truck driver maneuvers through a certain scenario (1 out of 24). For each scenario, the peaks per minute data was recorded for 11 subjects along each segment (scenario) from the start of the road to 150 feet before the intersection (traffic signals). Peaks per minute represents the emotional arousal (i.e., something is scary, threating, joyful, etc.) that a driver generates when reacting to a particular event. Fourteen participants were recruited, two of them had a simulator sickness so they were excluded from the data and the analysis. While there are no quality or consistency issues with this data set, it should be noted that the sample is on the smaller side and that should be considered when interpreting derived results. The average values were calculated to apply robust statistical analysis for such data (speed and lateral position). As the experiment consists of 2x2x2x3 factorial design, each participant had to driver through 24 scenarios; therefore, 288 scenario observations were obtained and recorded in the excel file.
Recommended Citation:
Goodchild, Anne; McCormack, Ed; Ranjbari, Andisheh; Hurwitz, David, 2023, "Developing Better Curb Management Strategies through Understanding Commercial Vehicle Driver Parking Behavior in a Simulated Environment", Harvard Dataverse.

West Seattle Bridge Case Study (Phase I)

West Seattle is an area of the city of Seattle located on a peninsula west of the Duwamish waterway and east of the Puget Sound. In March 2020, the West Seattle High Bridge (WSHB), the main bridge connecting West Seattle to the rest of the city, was closed indefinitely to traffic due to its increasing rate of structural deterioration. Moreover, access to the Spokane Street Lower Bridge, a smaller bridge connecting West Seattle with Harbor Island and the rest of the city, was also restricted; prioritizing heavy freight, public transit, and emergency vehicles. After the bridge closure and restrictions, the total number of vehicle travel lanes crossing the Duwamish River was reduced from 21 to 12.

The unexpected closure of WSHB disrupted passenger and freight mobility to and from West Seattle, increasing travel times and generating bottlenecks on the remaining bridges, which can potentially negatively impact the livability of the peninsula as well as its economy and the environment. The situation might further deteriorate as traffic demand to and from West Seattle increases during recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic.

The Seattle Department of Transportation (SDOT) is taking actions to monitor changes in travel behavior to/from West Seattle and identify and implement strategies that could mitigate the negative impacts caused by the WSHB closure.

SDOT has engaged the Urban Freight Lab to conduct research to explore strategies to alleviate congestion impacts and minimize the disruption of goods and service delivery to West Seattle.

The purpose of this study is to support SDOT to:

  1. understand current freight movements and freight demand in West Seattle;
  2. identify a data-driven mitigation strategy for freight and service flow to and from West Seattle;
  3. assess ex-ante the effectiveness of an implemented strategy.

The freight operations considered and analyzed within the scope of the project are consumer goods and services destined for West Seattle residents and businesses. Intermediate goods and raw materials destined for construction of production and other goods transiting through West Seattle but not destined for local residents or businesses will not be studied.

This project continues with the West Seattle Bridge Case Study Phase II.


Exploring the Sustainability Potential of Urban Delivery Microhubs and Cargo Bike Deliveries

Publication: 9th International Urban Freight Conference, Long Beach, May 2022
Publication Date: 2022

Micro-consolidation implementations and pairing with soft transportation modes offer practical, economic, environmental, and cultural benefits. Early implementations of micro consolidation practices were tested but cities need to understand their implications in terms of efficiency and sustainability.

This study includes a research scan and proposes a typology of micro-consolidation practices. It focuses on assessing the performance of microhubs that act as additional transshipment points where the packages are transported by trucks and transferred onto e-bikes to complete the last mile.

The purpose of the study is to assess the performance of delivery operations using a network of microhubs with cargo logistics and identify the conditions under which these solutions can be successfully implemented to improve urban freight efficiencies and reduce emissions. The performance is evaluated in terms of vehicle miles traveled, tailpipe CO2 emissions, and average operating cost per package using simulation tools.

Recommended Citation:
Şeyma Güneş and Anne Goodchild (2022). Exploring the Sustainability Potential of Urban Delivery Microhubs and Cargo Bike Deliveries. 9th International Urban Freight Conference (INUF), Long Beach, CA May 2022.

Decision Problems and Applications of Operations Research at Marine Container Terminals

Publication: Wiley Encyclopedia of Operations Research and Management Science
Publication Date: 2011

This article provides an overview of the applications of operations research (OR) techniques to marine container terminals. The article begins by providing a summary of marine container terminal operations. Following this, a series of decision problems are identified, to which OR techniques have been applied. These include quayside, yard, and landside decision problems. In each section, the problems, technical approaches, and outcomes are described.

With respect to quayside decision problems, the specific problems addressed include the determination of quayside equipment types, berth allocation, quay crane allocation and scheduling, and operational planning and real‐time decisions related to transportation equipment. Yard decision problems include yard design, storage space allocation, and task assignment for yard handling equipment. Landside decision problems include the design of the terminal’s landside connection, transport planning, and real‐time control of landside operations.

The article provides an overview of the state of the practice. The reader will gain an understanding of the nature of decision problems in marine container terminals, how OR techniques have been used to address these, and the operational improvements made possible through the application of OR techniques to this problem area.

Authors: Dr. Anne Goodchild, Wenjuan Zhao, Erica Wygonik
Recommended Citation:
Goodchild, A., Zhao, W., & Wygonik, E. (2010). Decision Problems and Applications of Operations Research at Marine Container Terminals.
Technical Report

Requirements for a Washington State Freight Simulation Model

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Publication: Transportation Northwest (TransNow)
Publication Date: 2009

In the face of many risks of disruptions to our transportation system, including natural disasters, inclement weather, terrorist acts, work stoppages, and other potential transportation disruptions, it is imperative for freight transportation system partners to plan a transportation system that can recover quickly from disruption and to prevent long-term negative economic consequences to state and regional economies. In this report we specify the requirements of a statewide freight resiliency model. We recommend a geographic information system (GIS)-based, multi-modal Washington state freight transportation network that can be augmented with complete state-wide commodity flow data. With this, the state will be able to improve freight planning and infrastructure investment prioritization. We provide recommendations regarding the scope of and methodology for a statewide freight model that will be developed from the GIS network. This model can be used to estimate the vulnerability of different economic industry sectors to disruptions in the transportation system and the economic impacts of those disruptions with in the State of Washington. The team interviewed public sector users to understand what applications are of value in a statewide freight model and applied the lessons learned through building the GIS and conducting two case studies to make recommendations for future work.

Over the last ten years, the U.S. transportation infrastructure has suffered from significant disruptions: for example, the terrorist events of September 11, 2001, the West Coast lockout of dock labor union members, and roadway failures following Hurricane Katrina. There is certainly an impression that these events are more common than in the past and that they come with an increasing economic impact. At the same time, supply chain and transportation management techniques have created lean supply chains, and lack of infrastructure development has created more reliance on individual pieces or segments of the transportation network, such as the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach and Washington States’ ports of Seattle and Tacoma. Disruptions, when they occur to essential pieces of the network, cause significant impacts. In particular, they cause significant damage to the economic system.

The relationship between infrastructure and economic activity, however, is not well understood. The development of a statewide freight model will allow WSDOT to better understand this relationship, and improve transportation system resilience.

Authors: Dr. Anne GoodchildDr. Ed McCormack, Eric Jessup
Recommended Citation:
Goodchild, A. , Jessup, E. , and McCormack, E. Requirements for a Washington State Freight Simulation Model. TNW2009-11. Transportation Northwest, University of Washington, 2009.
Student Thesis and Dissertations

Economic Implications of the Use of Technology in Commercial Vehicle Operations

Publication Date: 2012

The effective and efficient movement of freight is essential to the economic well-being of our country but freight transport also adversely impacts our society by contributing to a large number of crashes, including those resulting in injuries and fatalities. Technology has been used increasingly to facilitate safety and operational improvements within commercial vehicle operations, but motor carriers operate on small profit margins, limiting their ability to make large investments without also seeing an economic benefit from such technologies. This dissertation explores the economic implications associated with using onboard monitoring systems to enhance safety in commercial vehicle operations.

First, to better understand how electronic on-board systems work, paper-based methods of recording driver hours of service are compared to automated (or electronically recorded) hours of service for three motor carriers using process analysis. This analysis addressed the differences between manual (paper-based) and electronic methods of recording hours of service, specifically as they relate to the frequencies and magnitude of the errors. Potential errors are categorized by operations within an information-based process and the findings suggest that a reduction of errors can be achieved with an electronic system.

A benefit-cost analysis provides a better understanding of the economic implications of onboard monitoring systems from the perspective of the carrier. In addition to the benefits of reduced crashes, benefits associated with electronic recording of hours of service, reduced mileage, and reduced fuel costs are considered. A sensitivity analysis is used and demonstrates that on-board monitoring systems are economically viable under a wide range of conditions. Results indicate that, for some fleet types, reducing crashes and improving hours of service recording, provides a net benefit of close to $300,000 over the five-year expected lifespan of the system. Furthermore, when exploring additional benefits such as reduced fuel consumption and reduced vehicle miles, benefits can be upwards of seven times more than safety-related benefits. This research also shows that net positive benefits are possible in large and small-sized fleets. Results can be used to inform policies for motivating or mandating carriers to use such systems and to inform carriers regarding the value of system investment.

Authors: Kelly A. Pitera
Recommended Citation:
Pitera, Kelly Ann. "Economic Implications of the Use of Technology in Commercial Vehicle Operations." PhD diss., 2012.
Thesis: Array