Shippers and motor carriers are impacted by and react differently to travel time variability due to their positions within the supply chain and end goals. Through interviews and focus groups these differences have been further examined. Shippers, defined here as entities that send or receive goods, but do not provide the transportation themselves, are most often concerned with longer-term disruptions, which are typically considered within the context of transportation system resilience. Motor carriers, defined here as entities engaged in transporting goods for shippers, are most often concerned with daily travel time variability from events such as congestion. This paper describes the disparity in concerns and the strategies shippers and motor carriers are likely to engage in to address time travel variability. This knowledge allows for a better understanding of how investments to mitigate travel time variability will impact shippers and motor carriers.
Goodchild, Anne V., Kelly Pitera, and Edward McCormack. "Examining the differential responses of shippers and motor carriers to travel time variability." International Journal of Applied Logistics (IJAL) 3, no. 1 (2012): 39-53.